Proxy servers basically act as middlemen between the client system and the internet while you search for data. Technically, when you search for something, the query goes through the proxy server to the internet and the result comes back to your system through the proxy server.
Types of proxy servers:
There are a few kinds of basic proxies as below.
Anonymous proxy: When you search for a particular information using this proxy, there is no way that your IP address will be revealed. Not only it masks your IP address but also when a request goes out from your system to the internet, only the IP address of the proxy server is revealed. Your IP is secure.
Elite or High Anonymity Proxy: The highest security that a proxy can provide is here. This proxy has the highest level of anonymity wherein the anonymous proxy, the user system IP is not revealed but the IP of the proxy is shown making the receiver aware that a proxy has been used. However, in this proxy, neither the client system nor the proxy IP is shown. The receiver will not be aware of the request was made by a system or a proxy server.
Transparent Proxy: The name says it all. This proxy server is transparent enough to give away all your information when you send out a request. Mostly this works in an intranet environment where all your activity is known to the management. However, for a person sharing personal information only, this is in no way a safe way to browse.
Reverse Proxy: This proxy is usually used by very secure, closed or private networks. This proxy passes requests from the internet through a firewall to an isolated network. This is done for the security of the clients do not have a direct access to sensitive data on an isolated network.